B04: Spatial distribution, sources, and cloud processing of aerosol particles
Aerosol particles influence the radiative balance and the radiative properties of Arctic clouds by affecting/controlling cloud microphysical properties and phase state. Due to the preponderant impact of clouds on the Arctic radiative budget, the interactions between clouds and aerosol particles may play a key role in Arctic amplification. In phase I of (AC)³, we have significantly extended our knowledge concerning the abundance, properties, and sources of Arctic Condensation Nuclei (CCN), Ice Nucleating Particles (INP), and Black Carbon (BC). Specifically, we found strong variability but no clear trend in atmospheric INP number concentrations over the past 500 years, seasonality in Arctic INP concentrations (highest in summer and lowest in winter), INP from most likely biogenic marine origin in the high Arctic during late winter, a seasonal vertical distribution of BC properties controlled by transport patterns and emission sources, the Surface Mixing-Layer (SML) and samples from melt ponds to contain ice active entities making them potential sources for atmospheric INP and marine sugars in the Arctic, and free sugar glucose as potentially “easy to measure” INP tracer in Arctic seawater. Despite these and other recent important findings, the processes controlling distribution and properties of the aerosol particles interacting with clouds, such as Cloud CCN, INP and BC, are not well understood and quantified. Furthermore, sources and oceanic contributions to Arctic aerosols and INP concentration are to date highly uncertain.
Arctic aerosol acting as CCN and IN is strongly influenced by biogenic emissions and, together with BC from burning emissions, their vertical distribution is strongly affected by cloud processing.
We want to address the following scientific questions:
- What is the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols, CCN, INP, and BC and their physical and chemical properties in the Arctic?
- Which sources contribute the most to aerosol particle, CCN, INP, and BC presence in the Arctic?
- What is the link between INP and oceanic biology?
- Do clouds affect the vertical distribution of aerosol particle, CCN, INP, and BC?
Achievements phase I
In B04, a strong variability, but no clear trend, of atmospheric Ice Nucleating Particles (INP) number concentrations over the past 500 years was discovered (Hartmann et al., 2019). However, a clear picture of INP seasonality in the Arctic with highest concentrations in summer and lowest in winter was identified from recent measurements across the Arctic (Wex et al., 2019). INP decrease from land to open sea, suggesting terrestrial contributions to the Arctic INP population (Wendisch et al., 2019). The seasonal vertical distribution of Black Carbon (BC) properties controlled by transport patterns and emission sources was observed (Schulz et al., 2019). Different sizes and concentrations relative to the cloud layer, with enhanced concentration above clouds were identified (Wendisch et al., 2019). It was shown that the sea surface microlayer (SML) and samples from melt ponds contain ice active entities making them potential sources for atmospheric INP and marine sugars in the Arctic (Zeppenfeld et al., 2019). The free sugar glucose can act as “easy to measure” INP tracer in Arctic sea water.
Role within (AC)³
Dr. Andreas Herber
Alfred-Wegener-Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research (AWI)
Zeppenfeld, S., van Pinxteren, M., Engel, A., and Herrmann, H., 2020: A protocol for quantifying mono- and polysaccharides in seawater and related saline matrices by electro-dialysis (ED) – combined to HPAEC-PAD, Ocean Sci. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/os-2020-2, in review.
Ehrlich, A., M. Wendisch, C. Lüpkes, M. Buschmann, H. Bozem, D. Chechin, H.-C. Clemen, R. Dupuy, O. Eppers, J. Hartmann, A. Herber, E. Jäkel, E. Järvinen, O. Jourdan, U. Kästner, L.-L. Kliesch, F. Köllner, M. Mech, S. Mertes, R. Neuber, E. Ruiz-Donoso, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, J. Stapf, and M. Zanatta, 2019: A comprehensive in situ and remote sensing data set from the Arctic CLoud Observations Using airborne measurements during polar Day (ACLOUD) campaign, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-11-1853-2019
Kecorius, S., T. Vogl, P. Paasonen, J. Lampilahti, D. Rothenberg, H. Wex, S. Zeppenfeld, M. van Pinxteren, M. Hartmann, S. Henning, X. Gong, A. Welti, M. Kulmala, F. Stratmann, H. Herrmann, and A. Wiedensohler, 2019: New particle formation and its effect on CCN abundance in the summer Arctic: a case study during PS106 cruise, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14339–14364, doi:10.5194/acp-19-14339-2019
Zeppenfeld, S., M. van Pinxteren, M. Hartmann, A. Bracher, F. Stratmann, and H. Herrmann, 2019: Glucose as a potential chemical marker for ice nucleating activity in Arctic seawater and melt pond samples, accepted for publication in Environmental Science & Technology
Wendisch, M., A. Macke, A. Ehrlich, C. Lüpkes, M. Mech, D. Chechin, K. Dethloff, C. Barrientos, H. Bozem, M. Brückner, H.-C. Clemen, S. Crewell, T. Donth, R. Dupuy, C. Dusny, K. Ebell, U. Egerer, R. Engelmann, C. Engler, O. Eppers, M. Gehrmann, X. Gong, M. Gottschalk, C. Gourbeyre, H. Griesche, J. Hartmann, M. Hartmann, B. Heinold, A. Herber, H. Herrmann, G. Heygster, P. Hoor, S. Jafariserajehlou, E. Jäkel, E. Järvinen, O. Jourdan, U. Kästner, S. Kecorius, E.M. Knudsen, F. Köllner, J. Kretzschmar, L. Lelli, D. Leroy, M. Maturilli, L. Mei, S. Mertes, G. Mioche, R. Neuber, M. Nicolaus, T. Nomokonova, J. Notholt, M. Palm, M. van Pinxteren, J. Quaas, P. Richter, E. Ruiz-Donoso, M. Schäfer, K. Schmieder, M. Schnaiter, J. Schneider, A. Schwarzenböck, P. Seifert, M.D. Shupe, H. Siebert, G. Spreen, J. Stapf, F. Stratmann, T. Vogl, A. Welti, H. Wex, A. Wiedensohler, M. Zanatta, S. Zeppenfeld, 2019: The Arctic Cloud Puzzle: Using ACLOUD/PASCAL Multi-Platform Observations to Unravel the Role of Clouds and Aerosol Particles in Arctic Amplification, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 100 (5), 841–871, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0072.1
Wex, H., L. Huang, W. Zhang, H. Hung, R. Traversi, S. Becagli, R. Sheesley, C. Moffett, T. Barrett, R. Bossi, H. Skov, A. Hünerbein, J. Lubitz, M. Löffler, O. Linke, M. Hartmann, P. Herenz, and F. Stratmann, 2019: Annual variability of ice nucleating particle concentrations at different Arctic locations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5293-5311, doi:10.5194/acp-19-5293-2019
Hartmann, M., T. Blunier, S.O. Brügger, J. Schmale, M. Schwikowski, A.Vogel, H.Wex, and F. Stratmann, 2019: Variation of Ice Nucleating Particles in the European Arctic over the Last Centuries, Geophysical Research Letters, 46 (7), 4007– 4016, doi:10.1029/2019GL082311