Modelling within (AC)³
In order to make full use of the planned unique observations, accompanying and adequate modelling activities are mandatory. Models will guide the planning and performance of field campaigns; they will be used as testbeds to evaluate different parameterizations, analyse and quantify feedback mechanisms in sensitivity studies and assess the importance of processes for Arctic climate and their interaction with dynamics and climate change. The hierarchy of models employed within (AC)³ ranges from high–resolution process models to meso–scale, regional, and global models. The employment of these model types is subdivided into ’down-scaling’ and ’up-scaling’ approaches. In our down–scaling approach large–scale simulations with climate models are used to identify systematic errors on the daily, seasonal, inter–annual and decadal time scale and to quantify contributions of individual processes relevant for Arctic Amplification.
Illustration of modelling strategy pursued within (AC)³. RTM: Radiative Transfer Model;SCM: Single–Column Model; LES: Large–Eddy Simulation; METRAS: Atmospheric mesoscale nonhydrostatic flow and transport model; HIRHAM: Regional atmospheric climate model; NAOSIM: North Atlantic/Arctic Ocean–sea ice model; ICON: Icosahedral non–hydrostatic atmospheric general circulation model; ICON–HAM: Coupled climate–aerosol model; MUAM: Middle and Upper Atmosphere Model; CMIP: Coupled Model Intercomparison Project; REcoM–MITgcm: Coupled Regulated Ecosystem Model–Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ocean General Circulation Model.
(AC)³ Modelling tools