AFLUX 2019

Arctic aircraft campaign Arctic Boundary Layer Fluxes

March 01 to May 25 2019, Station Nord/Greenland

AC3_logo

Important (preliminary) dates concerning AFLUX:

Installation: until 08 February 2019

Surface tests: 18 February 2019

Testflight: 21 February 2019

Equipment etc. in aircraft: 14 March 2019

Departure BHV: 15 March 2019

Arrival in LYB: 16 March 2019

First (test)flight: 17 March 2019

Departure from LYB: 16 April 2019

Removal of instrumentation after: 23 April 2019

Time to go until first flight day of AFLUX

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AFLUX is a joint project of different German universities and research institutes and of one French university. It is embedded in the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre TR 172 (ArctiC Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and SurfaCe Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)³). The general goal of AFLUX (Joint Aircraft campaign observing FLUXes of energy and momentum in the cloudy boundary layer over polar sea ice and ocean) is to obtain a comprehensive data set of atmospheric parameters in the polar cloud-covered and cloud-free atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) over sea ice.  Flights will be arranged in a way that the data can serve to improve our understanding of boundary layer processes dependent on the dominating impact factors such as clouds, sea ice cover, surface temperature and wind. The combined analysis of the measurement data and of suitable modeling results will be used to estimate the role of Arctic clouds and of surface heterogeneities for the amplified climate change in polar regions. Special emphasis is on the comparison of results during this winter/early spring campaign with the ACLOUD – (AC)³  campaign carried out during late spring/early summer in the same region in 2017 (Wendisch et al., 2018).

AFLUX will employ one research aircraft, Polar 5, operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany. To reach the goals described above, the research flights aim to measure turbulent and radiative fluxes of energy and depending on the properties of low-level clouds and aerosol particles, as well as on trace gas concentration. To that aim both in situ measurement techniques and remote sensing instruments will be applied.

80 flight hours are planned within about 4 weeks (15 March – 16 April 2019). Polar 5 will approach the ice-pack mainly in altitudes of 3,000 m (10,000 ft). Then, flights will be performed in different levels above and below clouds if visibility conditions are sufficient.  During descend clouds will be probed under suitable conditions with only very weak icing.  If conditions allow, also short horizontal flight legs are planned in clouds. Such conditions might be found in shallow stratocumulus over sea ice where humidity is lower than at the sea ice edge. The lowest possible flight level is at 60 m (200 ft) above ground, which is needed to characterize turbulent fluxes in the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer below clouds as well as to measure the surface temperature and the surface reflectivity.

The base for the aircraft operation will be Longyearbyen, (Svalbard Lufthavn, LYR) and flights will be performed in the region 75°N-85°N and 30°W-28°E. The airborne observations will be closely coordinated with surface-based observations at the AWIPEV station (Ny-Ålesund).

A third aircraft campaign (AFLUX), based at the Station Nord (Greenland), with one of the two AWI aircrafts is planned for 2019. The objectives and instrumentation are similar to ACLOUD, although somewhat reduced because probably only one aircraft will be available

Strategy

in vicinity of the Villum Research Station (Greenland),

 

Objectives

 

 

Location

Ground-based observations will be based at Villum Research Station (Greenland). The operation area of Polar 5 will be mainly above sea ice in the Arctic sea and the Fram Strait. While dense multi-year sea ice is expected north of Greenland, thinner first year sea ice will dominate the sea ice in the Fram Strait. Some flights will focus on the snow properties over the Greenland to be able to compare to the ground-based observations around Villum Research Station.

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Ground-Based Instrumentation

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Polar 5 – Airborne Instrumentation

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2018

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Schedule of field observations, planned in Phase I of (AC)³. CONCORD: Continuous characterization of the Ny–Ålesund column and radiative effects from ground–based remote sensing; PASCAL: Physical feedback of Arctic ABL, Sea ice, Cloud and Aerosol; ABEX: Arctic Balloon–borne profiling EXperiment; ACLOUD: Arctic Clouds – Characterization of Ice, aerosol Particles and Energy fluxes; PAMARCMiP: Polar Airborne Measurements and Arctic Regional Climate Model Simulation Project; AFLUX: Arctic Amplification: Fluxes in the Cloudy Atmospheric Boundary Layer; MOSAiC: Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate. The colouring is defined as follows: yellow: ground–based; blue: ship–based; red: tethered balloon; green: aircraft; gray: space–borne.

Schedule of field observations, planned in Phase I of (AC)³. CONCORD: Continuous characterization of the Ny–Ålesund column and radiative effects from ground–based remote sensing; PASCAL: Physical feedback of Arctic ABL, Sea ice, Cloud and Aerosol; ABEX: Arctic Balloon–borne profiling EXperiment; ACLOUD: Arctic Clouds – Characterization of Ice, aerosol Particles and Energy fluxes; PAMARCMiP: Polar Airborne Measurements and Arctic Regional Climate Model Simulation Project; AFLUX: Arctic Amplification: Fluxes in the Cloudy Atmospheric Boundary Layer; MOSAiC: Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate. The colouring is defined as follows: yellow: ground–based; blue: ship–based; red: tethered balloon; green: aircraft; gray: space–borne.

18. April 2017: Integration of Polar 5 started

18. April 2017: Integration of Polar 5 started

10. April 2017: Integration of Polar 6 started

Time to go until first flight day of ACLOUD

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ACLOUD is a joint project of different German universities and research institutes embedded in the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre TR 172: ArctiC Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and SurfaCe Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC)³. The general goal of ACLOUD is to obtain a comprehensive data set of a diversity of atmospheric parameters that will be used to understand and quantify specific physical processes in, above, and below Arctic clouds. The analysis of the measurement data will, in combination with different kinds of atmospheric models, be used to estimate the role of Arctic clouds for the amplified climate change in Polar Regions.

 

Strategy

ACLOUD employs two research aircraft, Polar 5 & 6, operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Marine and Polar research. The research flights aim to measure properties of cloud and aerosol particles, trace gas concentration, the energy fluxes in the atmospheric column including radiative fluxes as well as fluxes of sensible and turbulent latent heat. In situ measurement techniques and remote sensing instruments will be applied. The flights will be performed simultaneously with both aircraft. In total, 80 flight hours for each aircraft within 5 1/2 weeks (22. May – 28. June 2017) are planned. Polar 5 & 6 will approach the ice-pack mainly in altitudes of 3,000 m (10,000 ft). Then flights will be performed in different levels above, in and below clouds if visibility conditions are sufficient. The lowest possible flight level is at 60 m (200 ft) above ground which is needed to characterize turbulent fluxes in the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer and the surface reflectivity. The base for the aircraft operation will be Longyearbyen, (Svalbard lufthavn, LYR). The airborne observations will be closely coordinated with surface based observations at the AWIPEV station (Ny Ålesund) and with surface based observations from an ice camp around RV Polarstern that will be drifting in sea ice north of Svalbard during the period of the aircraft campaign. Some flights will be performed also while the ship is sailing in the Fram Strait along its way to the final position in the ice pack.

 

Objectives

The research activities of ACLOUD combine investigations of clouds, atmospheric aerosol, trace gases, and of turbulent and radiative fluxes in cloudy and clear-sky conditions. The main aim of the cloud studies is to improve the understanding of the cloud-related processes in the Arctic atmosphere and to obtain data which can be used for testing the performance atmospheric models in the Arctic ranging from small-scale (LES) to regional and global climate models. Data will be used also for a test of parameterizations (e.g. radiation and turbulence). ACLOUD will characterize the cloud microphysical properties (cloud particle size, concentration, thermodynamic phase and shape), cloud radiative properties and aerosol properties to estimate the impact of cloud-aerosol interactions on the characteristics of the clouds. ACLOUD will focus on low level clouds within the lowest 10,000 ft of the atmosphere and especially on the atmospheric boundary layer clouds. These clouds strongly interact with the Arctic surface and potentially change the surface energy budget in sea ice and ice free areas. Therefore, ACLOUD aims to characterize cloud-surface interaction including turbulent and radiative fluxes, precipitation of snow and rain.

 

Location

The operation area of Polar 5 & 6 will be adjusted to the position of Polarstern. Polarstern is expected to sail along the west coast of Svalbard north into the sea ice. The ice station is supposed to be initially at about 82.5° N and 15° E and is expected to drift towards south-west. The Polar 5 and Polar 6 aircraft will perform multiple science flights in a sector between 75-85°N and 30°W-28°E.

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Polar 6 – In situ measurements

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Polar 5 – Remote Sensing

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Polar 5 Instrumentation

Instrument Institution Products
SMART-Albedometer UniLeipzig Spectral radiance I (nadir), irradiance F (up and down) 300-2200 nm; cloud albedo, cloud optical depth and effective radius, ice indices
AISA Eagle UniLeipzig Spectral radiance I in 512 pixel (36° swath), 300-1000 nm; cloud optical thickness
AISA Hawk UniLeipzig Spectral radiance I in 256 pixel (36° swath), 1000-2500 nm; cloud phase, cloud effective radius
MiRAC Passive microwave radiometer; 6 channels at 183 GHz + 243 and 340 GHz, water vapor profiles, LWP, IWP
Cloud radar 95 GHZ (Doppler), cloud geometry, precipitation, 89 GHz for LWP estimation
 AMALi    Particle extinction coefficient, cloud-top height
 Nose Boom    3D wind vector, temperature and humidity, turbulent fluxes
 Sun-Photometer    Aerosol optical depth
 180° Fish-Eye Camera    BRDF, cloud phase function, Photo documentation
 AVAPS drop sondes    Profiles of air pressure, humidity, temperature, and wind

2016

1 – 2 December: GA Meeting

The 2nd annual (AC)³ General Assembly (GA) meeting will take place from December 1st to 2nd, 2016 in Potsdam (Germany).

The Early Career Scientist and PIs will present their scientific highlights from the first year. During breakout group discussion, the (AC)³ participants will report and discuss on onging collaborations with other Cluster groups and upcoming campaigns.

Meeting Agenda and additional information (PDF).

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Further information can be found in the intranet.

21 – 22 November: ACLOUD Workshop

The ACLOUD workshop took place from 21st to 22nd of November, 2016 in Bremen (Germany).

The ACLOUD campaign will take place from May 22nd to June 28th, 2017. The AWI Polar 5 and Polar 6 research aircrafts will be deployed in Ny-Ålesund.

In order to prepare this measurement campaign, about 30 researchers from Germany (University of Leipzig, University of Köln, University of Bremen, University of Mainz, AWI, TROPOS), and France (OPGC University) took part in the workshop. Most of the participants are key international ACLOUD PIs, aircraft instrument scientists and (AC)³ researchers who will all actively take part in the ACLOUD campaign or use the data for their research.

The following items have been discussed during the workshop:

  • presentation of science questions and discussion of case studies
  • refining flight strategies
  • discussion about the ACLOUD procedures, the work plan and the interface between the different groups (instruments, flight facility, flight planning)
  • presenting the local infrastructure in Ny-Ålesund
  • discussion about a common visualization domain and a common projection

The many lively discussions between theoretical meteorologists, instrument scientists, pilots and students taking part in the campaign made this workshop a successful meeting.

ACLOUD workshop agenda and time schedule (PDF).

Further information can be found in the intranet.

18 – 19 October: PAMARCMiP Kick-off Meeting

The PAMARCMiP kick-off meeting of (AC)³ took place from October 18th to October 19th, 2016 in Bremen (Germany).

Among the participants were 3 PIs, 6 Postdocs, 2 PhDs and 6 scientist from the participating (AC)³ institutes and partners from the Department of Environmental Science (ATPRO), University of Tokio (EPS), Niiggata University, and the University of Mainz (IPA).

The meeting has been the occasion to get to plan the aircraft campaign PAMARCMIP in spring or early summer 2018 from Station Nord, and to start collaborations within projects, between research areas and with the external partners.

PAMARCMiP Agenda and time schedule (PDF).

Further information can be found in the intranet.

Presentations

Name Insitute Title
Andreas Herber AWI Welcome & Inroduction PDF
André Ehrlich LIM Inroduction of (AC)³ PDF
Evi Jäkel LIM Project C01 PDF
André Ehrlich LIM Project C02 PDF
Andreas Massling Aarhus Uni Villum Research station – science PDF
Makato Koike Uni Tokio Cloud measurements PDF (part 1)
PDF (part 2)
Jinro Ukita Niigata Uni
Cloud-sea ice interactions
PDF
Heiko Bozem IAP
Trace gas measurements
PDF
Andreas Petzold FZ Jülich
IEK-8
PDF
Evi Jäkel LIM
Snow albedo and BRDF measurements
PDF
Tobias Donth LIM
Remote sensing of BC in snow
PDF
Gerit Birnbaum AWI
Physical snow characteristics
PDF
Marco Zanatta AWI
BC measurements and snow sampling
PDF
Holger Siebert TROPOS
PBL study with thethered balloon
PDF
Georg Heygster IUP
Sea ice and snow thickness measurements
PDF
Luca Lelli IUP Satellite observations
PDF
Martin Gehrmann AWI Polar 5
PDF
Stefan Hendricks AWI EM-Bird sea ice thickness
PDF
Andreas Massling Aarhus Uni VILLUM Station – logistics
PDF
Antje Kautzleben AWI-P AMALi
PDF
Meeting minutes
PDF

14 – 17 July: Linux/Unix PhD Workshop

PhD Workshop: An Introduction into Linux/Unix and Programming with FORTRAN 14. – 17.07.16 in Leipzig

When interacting with a server or computing cluster, the use of the command line (e.g. the Lunix terminal) is essential. Many of these servers are using a Linux system, or a system that can be handled in a similar way and are not accessible with a graphical user interface (GUI). The knowledge about the functions ot the terminal will make it a powerful tool for everyda work, not only when interacting with computing centres but also with peronal Linux/Unix machines.

FORTRAN is still one of the most commonly used programming languages in the field of meteorology/climatology. Its performance makes it useful for modelling as well as for data handling and analysis.

This workshop will give a short introduction into theses fields through exercises and coaching. It will be held by PhD students who are experienced users.

The workshop is capped at 14 participants for room capacity reasons.

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1 – 2 June: PhD Kick-off Meeting

The Kick-off PhD meeting of (AC)³ tooks place from June 1st to June 2nd, 2016 at Kloster Nimbschen, Grimma (Germany).

This meeting is for the (AC)³ PhDs to organize themselves and to improve their collaboration and productivity between the different locations.

The program of the PhD Kick-off meeting and additional information is available here. (PDF)

Group_foto_PhD
30 May – 1 June: Kick-off Meeting

The Kick-off meeting of (AC)³ tooks place from May 30th to June 1st, 2016 at Kloster Nimbschen, Grimma (Germany).

The meeting had the occasion to get to know each other and to start collaborations within projects, between research areas and with the international guests.

The program of the Kick-off meeting and additional information is available here.

Further information can be found in the intranet.

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16 – 17 February: ACLOUD Meeting

The ACLOUD meeting of (AC)³ took place from February 16th to February 17th, 2016 in Leipzig (Germany).

Among the participants were 6 PIs, 3 PhDs and 13 scientist from the participating (AC)³ institutes and partners from the University of Mainz (IPA), Max-Planck-Institute Mainz (MPI), and the Karlsruher Institute for Technology (KIT).

The meeting has been the occasion to get to plan the aircraft campaign ACLOUD from 22 May – 28 June 2017 in Longyearbyen, Svalbard, and to start collaborations within projects, between research areas and with the external partners.

ACLOUD Agenda and time schedule (PDF).

Further information can be found in the intranet.

Presentations

Name Institute Title
Manfred Wendisch LIM Introduction (AC)³ PDF
André Ehrlich/Christof Lüpkes LIM/AWI Introduction ACLOUD & AFLUX PDF
André Ehrlich LIM P5: SMART PDF
Evi Jäkel LIM P5: Eagle/Hawk PDF
Mario Mech IGM P5: MiRAC PDF
Roland Neuber AWI Potsdam P5: AMALi PDF
Christof Lüpkes AWI Bremerhaven P5/P6: Nose booms PDF
Stephan Mertes TROPOS P6: CVI + aerosol instrumentation PDF
Johannes Schneider MPI P6: AMS/ALABAMA PDF
Dirk Kalmbach AWI Bremerhaven P6: SP2, UHSAS PDF
Heiko Bozen/Peter Hoor IPA P6: CO/CO2 + Polar Dome PDF
Ralf Weigel IPA P6: PIP, CIP, HALOHolo PDF
Martin Schnaiter KIT P6: SID3 + PHIPS PDF
Ronny Engelmann TROPOS Activities on Polarstern PDF
Kerstin Ebell IGM Actvities in Ny-Ålesund – Radar PDF
Roland Neuber AWI Potsdam Actvities in Ny-Ålesund – AWIPEV PDF
Meeting Minutes
PDF
Flight patterns
PDF

Schedule of field observations, planned in Phase I of (AC)³. CONCORD: Continuous characterization of the Ny–Ålesund column and radiative effects from ground–based remote sensing; PASCAL: Physical feedback of Arctic ABL, Sea ice, Cloud and Aerosol; ABEX: Arctic Balloon–borne profiling EXperiment; ACLOUD: Arctic Clouds – Characterization of Ice, aerosol Particles and Energy fluxes; PAMARCMiP: Polar Airborne Measurements and Arctic Regional Climate Model Simulation Project; AFLUX: Arctic Amplification: Fluxes in the Cloudy Atmospheric Boundary Layer; MOSAiC: Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate. The colouring is defined as follows: yellow: ground–based; blue: ship–based; red: tethered balloon; green: aircraft; gray: space–borne.

Schedule of field observations, planned in Phase I of (AC)³. CONCORD: Continuous characterization of the Ny–Ålesund column and radiative effects from ground–based remote sensing; PASCAL: Physical feedback of Arctic ABL, Sea ice, Cloud and Aerosol; ABEX: Arctic Balloon–borne profiling EXperiment; ACLOUD: Arctic Clouds – Characterization of Ice, aerosol Particles and Energy fluxes; PAMARCMiP: Polar Airborne Measurements and Arctic Regional Climate Model Simulation Project; AFLUX: Arctic Amplification: Fluxes in the Cloudy Atmospheric Boundary Layer; MOSAiC: Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate. The colouring is defined as follows: yellow: ground–based; blue: ship–based; red: tethered balloon; green: aircraft; gray: space–borne.